Starting with this seminal article that defined how to compare prison use between different countries, Waller has worked to examine what effects trends in incarceration, particularly in and within affluent countries. While in government, he produced a digest for policy makers that compared crime and incarceration rates between different countries. His analyses were used for a Canadian government report on crime policy and the US Commission on Criminal Justice published as the Real War on Crime in 1996. It is the indicator developed in this article that is used by the International Centre for Prison Studies for world wide comparisons.
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